program schedule and timing subject to change without notice
Tue 7th Sep 2021
PCNS Registration Opens at 12:00
- Saverio Latorrata, Giovanni Dotelli; Politecnico di Milano
- Luca Primavesi; Itelcond
- Sustainability assessment: tools and perspective
- Durability of passive components and electrical ageing
- Study of degradation mechanisms and connection with sustainability
- Case study: life cycle assessment of different series of capacitors in Itelcond
- Case study: processing and reliability of materials in passive components
- Focus on the future: meeting the European Green Deal. Partnership possibilities to create new regulation and how to get environmental certification
fee included in the main conference fee
Marketing Seminar organized by Paumanok Inc.
- Dennis M. Zogbi; CEO and Paumanok founder
Passive Components Market Seminar with global market outlook including monthly updates of key data metrics for 2021.
Paumanok Publications, Inc. is the world’s largest supplier of market research and consulting services to the passive electronic component industry. Since 1988 Paumanok has provided accurate and timely data on the global capacitor, resistor, inductor and circuit protection component markets; and the raw materials consumed in their manufacture.
Seminar Fee €995.00
Complete Market Report $3750.00 (~ €3100.00)
Report, plus the videotape of the presentation and slides
$5,000.00 (~ €4100.00)
WED 8th Sep 2021
8:00 Registration Desk Opens
9:00-9:30 Welcome Speech prof. Mariapia Pedeferri; Politecnico di Milano and Tomas Zednicek Ph.D.; EPCI
Mr. Ralph M. Bronold
TDK Electronics AG Senior Vice President, Head of Industry Segment Development, Industrial & Home Appliances
Electronic systems and equipment, as well as electronic components, are undergoing crucial changes. Increasing performance and miniaturization are becoming standard requirements. European industry has been able to face up to these challenges successfully.
In the presentation we will give an overview about the activities of EPCIA in terms of generating reliable statistical information, giving member companies a networking and activity platform, supporting junior academics, and also promoting research project in the area of passive components.
EPCIA – Electronic Passive Components Industry Association represents and promotes the common interests of the passive components manufacturers, the corresponding national associations and technological research institutes active in Europe to ensure an open and transparent market for passive components as part of the global marketplace. Passive component manufacturers play a key role in the development of the electronics industry in Europe and the rest of the world. Every new function, every new semiconductor, generates new requirements in volume and performance for passive components. Very often, semiconductors (e.g., IGBT’s) and passive components (e.g. DC-link capacitors), needs to be carefully adopted to each in order to create the most efficient product for the customer.
EPCIA Member Companies:
AVX, Itelcond, JSC Resurs, KOA Europe, Murata Electronics Europe, Nichicon (Austria), Panasonic Industry Europe, Samsung Electro-Mechanics, Schaffner Germany, TDK Electronics,Vacuumschmelze, Vishay Electronic, Yageo Europe
Lecturer: to be confirmed
STMicroelectronics presentation about latest development of semiconductors and its impact to requirements on passive electronic components
10:50-11:50 Speakers Introduction
12:40-13:40 Technical Introduction Flash Presentations – 5min short commercial presentations from manufacturers to introduce its hot product / news or invitations to exhibition booth
13:40-15:40 Session I. MATERIALS & PROCESSES Chairman: Thomas Ebel
Having supplying inductive electronic components to worldwide Space businesses in accordance with MIL standards (type FT) for 25 years, Flux was granted ESA QML status based on Technology Flow Qualification (TFQ) in March 2020. In the cause of the TFQ process, Flux authored the applicable EESCC Detail Specification ESCC3201/013 “Customized Magnetics (inductors, transformers) based on type FT” in cooperation with the ESCC. As the TFQ is rare and unknown to many, only granted to five companies within different component types, Flux will present the outline of the TFQ and the resulting processes related to the design and manufacturing of inductive electronic components. The requirements of MIL-STD-981 (design), MIL-PRF-27 (performance) and MIL-STD-202 (test) are fairly well known and formed the baseline of Flux design and manufacturing for 25 years. The presentation will focus on the augmented responsibilities of being ESA QML by TFQ and will shed light on routines as: 1) ESCC Domain and its maintenance via periodic ESCC Qualification test including modifications from ESCC3201 in ESCC3201/013 2) Design feasibility and ESCC documentation including the design envelope documentation (PID, DML, DPL) 3) Function of the ESCC Technology Review Board approving each design proposed for ESCC Qualified Part status 3) The process flow of creating a new ESCC Qualified Part or updating an existing MIL-STD Part to ESCC Qualified 4) ESCC3201/013 Screening methods and responsibilities undertaken by the supplier, why ESCC Qualified Parts are deemed “Use as is” when delivered Finally, the presentation will sum up the buyer’s advantages of procuring ESCC Qualified Parts for various electronic applications.
V.Sedlakova, P.Tofel; Brno University of Technology; Czech Republic
Increase of capacitors’ energy density is of prime interest in number of today’s applications. High energy density, high voltage capacitors are especially needed in fast-growing segments such as automotive, renewable energy generation and transmission, medical etc.
Film power capacitors are dominating the high voltage segment; however, this technology is limited with lifetime at high temperatures and relatively low energy density level. High capacitance, high energy density MLCC capacitors based on class II dielectric materials offer small, compact size, high reliability, and high temperature range, however it shows significant capacitance (and energy) deterioration with applied voltage that reduces its real energy storage capability as its remarkable disadvantage.
This paper presents a study on suitability of doped BaTiO3 (BT) based, ferroelectric ceramic materials BCST and BT-11BS with low Curie temperatures as high energy density capacitor dielectrics. Aim of the research was to evaluate key features of these materials and optimize its process parameters to assess potential benefits as a high energy density capacitor dielectric.
Electrical parameters such as permittivity, electrical field strength, temperature dependence and capacitance with voltage dependency were evaluated on lab manufactured samples and benchmarked to the reference-made pure BT material samples.
Key finding on the low Curie temperature materials is that permittivity/capacitance with BIAS voltage does not decrease so rapidly at temperatures above the Curie temperature. This phenomenon increases a total energy storage density across operating voltage and temperature range as demonstrated on BT-11BS material with Curie temperature as low as 37°C. This, so far possibly overlooked behaviour by capacitor manufacturers, could bring a new direction in development of higher energy density and more stable ceramic capacitors.
Both BCST and BT-11BS evaluated low Curie temperature materials showed higher energy density compare to the pure BT reference material, nevertheless BCST’s high dielectric losses and low efficiency degrade its dielectric features, thus it may not be a suitable candidate for capacitor dielectric.
The highest energy density on BT-11BS after process optimisation achieved up to 10x higher ED than BT reference material and improved permittivity stability with applied voltage and temperature.
Jiri Navratil, Michaela Radouchova, Daniela Moravcova, Frantisek Steiner, and Ales Hamacek; University of West Bohemia, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Department of Materials and Technology; Czech Republic
At present, the popularity of wearable smart textiles is growing. These textiles are used in many novelty applications such as safety elements, health care or well-being products, sport garments, etc. One of the possible material used for these textiles are electrically conductive ribbons. These ribbons are flexible, stretchable and it is possible to make electrically conductive contact of SMD component onto these ribbons, which was proved in our previous experiments.
These contacts can be done by gluing or by soldering. The question is the reliability of each connection method in various environments where the product is expected to be used. The wearable textiles have to withstand various conditions affected by many factors. One of them is sweat which might be a significant factor e.g. for smart textile sports garments.
The reliability of joints between SMD chip resistors glued or soldered onto the textile ribbons during the accelerated ageing by synthetic sweat has been investigated and will be described in the full paper. In our research, the conductive textile ribbons with silver coated copper conductive wires were used.
Ten SMD chip resistors with 0 ohm resistance with case size 1206 were used for each tested sample. The two different methods for connection of resistor to the ribbon were used. First method was using a non-conductive adhesive to make a direct conductive contact between component pads and conductive wires in ribbon. The electrical connection is made by direct contact of pads and wires. This contact is mechanically fixed by the adhesive. The second method was using low temperature soldering by tin-bismuth solder paste. The joints with connected resistors were finally encapsulated by adhesive to improve the protection against outer environment for both methods.
The electrical resistance of joints was measured by four point probe method with measurement device Keithley 2700. The two different types of synthetic sweat (acidic and alkaline solution) were prepared for the test according to the standard ISO 105-E04. The acidic solution sweat was used for one half of samples and alkaline solution sweat was used for second half of samples.
The samples were submitted to the 25 cycles. Each cycle consisted of 30 minutes immersion of samples to the sweat, drying of samples in dryer, measuring of joints’ electrical resistance, immersion of samples to the demineralized water for 30 minutes, drying of samples in dryer, and measuring of joints’ electrical resistance. After first 15 cycles the immersion time in sweat was extended to the 24 hours and after next 5 cycles the immersion time in sweat was extended to the 168 hours (1 week). The results of both joint types were statistically analysed and compared. Also the metallographic cross sections of samples were realized.
The changes of joints, resistors’ pads and conductive wires were observed. These results are going to be published in the full paper.
Jiri Stulik; University of West Bohemia; Czech Republic
Carbon is one of the basic elements that has been used in electronics for a long time. Carbon occurs in various forms (allotropes) such as graphite, diamond, carbon nanotubes or graphene. In particular, carbon nanotubes and graphene are increasingly used in the field of electronic components and sensors. Carbon nanotubes can be chemically modified and thus change their chemical as well as electrical properties.
Modification is when CNTs bind other organic or inorganic substances to themselves, thereby changing their physical and chemical properties. These materials can be used to implement basic interconnection structures and create more complex electronic components. They are used in the field of passive electronic components and in the construction of organic FET transistors to improve their electrical parameters. Modified carbon nanotubes are preferably used as sensitive layers in environmental sensors.
With the help of these materials, it is possible to realize planar sensors, where the appropriate type of modification gives the sensitivity to a certain analyte. The advantage of these materials is that printing techniques can be used for creating functional electronic structures and thus realized flexible and planar electronic elements or entire systems.
Materials based on carbon nanotubes are organic materials, and thus, when applied to environmentally degradable substrates, they enable the realization of biodegradable electronic elements and systems. The article will present various electronic components and sensors based on modified carbon nanotubes and graphene, including their measured basic electrical parameters and properties.
16:00-18:00 Session I. (cont.) MATERIALS & PROCESSES Chairman: Saverio Latorrata
Polymer capacitors replaced electrolytic aluminum and manganese tantalum capacitors in many applications. While this trend was driven mainly by low ESR requirements in the past, high reliability performance is additionally requested for polymer capacitors nowadays. The development of new conductive polymers has opened the field of high reliability applications for polymer capacitors such as automotive, space and telecommunication.
Even in consumer electronics, a trend to design in polymer capacitors having a higher reliability can be seen. We will present the superior performance of new conductive polymer materials regarding harsh conditions such as elevated temperature and high humidity. State of the art conductive polymers can not only achieve an intrinsically higher reliability but being much more environmentally friendly compared to previous polymer technologies.
Ryan Clement, Jean-Paul Meutcheho; Global Advanced Metals; USA
History has shown that a stable, reliable and ethical tantalum supply chain is critically important to supply of electronic components such as capacitors and semiconductors for use in automotive, aerospace, medical, defense, energy and chemical processing industries. What has the tantalum supply chain learned from its prior ups and downs?
How is the supply chain evolving and positioning for long term increasing demand related to data storage, communications infrastructure, electric and self-drive vehicles and all manner of developing technologies? The 2020’s have ushered in a new era of the tantalum supply chain: tantalum ore is readily available from regulatory compliant and trusted sources, conversion is geographically diverse and in stable locations and OEM demand is increasing across many industries globally.
The paper and presentation will discuss tantalum supply chain past, present and future considerations and how it can now be truly viewed as sustainable and reliable in support of all relevant industries.
Prisca Viviani, Luca Magagnin and Luca Nobili; Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Milano; Italy
Wearable electronics is rapidly spreading in our every-day-life and wearable devices will become more and more indispensable in the next future. For this reason, research is rapidly pushing technological boundaries to develop new flexible and miniaturized devices as multi-purpose sensors, health monitoring systems and power generation. In particular, a true technological breakthrough will be achieved when wearables will be directly integrated in smart fabrics and will be powered on by embedded energy power sources. The development of textile-based energy storage microdevice is even more challenging because of the complex mechanical deformation they must withstand in use. Despite the limited energy storage capacity respect to Li-ion batteries (LIBs), supercapacitors (SC) are considered a particularly suitable choice for textile energy storage because of their reliability, long lifetime and much safer water-based electrolyte employment respect to LIBs. In this presentation we demonstrated multiple technological approaches for the fabrication of textile SC. Fiber-shaped electrodes were obtained by wet-spinning a dispersion of aramid nanofibers and then coating with PEDOT:PSS. The electrochemical performances of the fibrous symmetrical SC weaved on a cotton fabric were investigated through cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles both in flat and bended condition. Printing technologies were then employed to directly coat fabric surface. MXene-based SC with different configurations were obtained by both inkjet-printing and aerosol-printing, demonstrating the feasibility of ink-based printing technologies for the rapid fabrication of textile SC.
(1) Luca Primavesi; Itelcond, Italy
(2) Marco Freschi, Giovanni Dotelli; Politecnico di Milano, Italy
The selection of electrolytic capacitors is mainly based on their reliability. Beside this property, the evaluation of environmental performances of such devices is crucial due to their wide dissemination and to the utilization of critical raw materials for their production. Starting from the environmental analysis of the stages of selection and supply of raw materials, it is possible to improve the sustainability of the manufacturing process of a capacitor. In addition, the use stage and end-of-life of the devices can be analysed to evaluate their entire life cycle.
In this study, LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) methodology is applied to perform a comparative analysis between two types of aluminium electrolytic of capacitors. These products are applied in different sectors as industrial, inverter and UPS, solar, medical and tractions systems. The aim of the study is to compare the environmental impacts due to the stages of production (from the raw materials supply to the assembly) and end-of-life (from the dismission to the recycle or disposal of wastes) of two aluminium electrolytic capacitors which are characterized by different internal designs but are manufactured by the same producer.
18:00 Welcome Drink (at the event venue)
THU 9th Sep 2021
8:00 Registration Desk Opens
9:00-10:00 Hot Topic Panel Discussion Facilitator: Tomáš Zedníček
Tentative list: A.Teverovsky (Jacobs GSFC (NASA), D.Lacombe (ESA), R.Demcko (AVX), T.Ebel (SDU), L.Foelkel (Wuerth Electronic), P.Andretti (Kemet), Dennis M Zogbi (Paumanok)
- MIL vs Space vs Automotive
- Life sustainability & life cycle assessment
- Environmental impact & Recycling – whole supply chain
- AEC-Q200 as the future most common specification?
- Future requirements (such as AI systems and monitoring)
10:00-10:30 Invited Paper I.
Uwe Mirschberger; Murata Electronics Europe; Germany
What are the different possibilities to suppress Electro Magnetic Interferences in „Power over Coax“ Systems in a smart, small and cost effective way.
10:50-11:50 Session II. QUALITY & RELIABILITY Chairman: Vlasta Sedláková
(1) P.Lessner; KEMET Electronics Corporation
(2) I. Luzinov; Clemson University
The reliability and failure mode in surface mount Solid Electrolytic and Polymer Tantalum capacitors were investigated using the parts manufactured with conventional technology and flawless technology (F-Tech) that suppresses typical defects such as crystalline inclusions in the amorphous matrix of the tantalum oxide dielectric.
The accelerated tests were performed; failure rates were calculated based on the cumulative percent of failed parts vs. time and acceleration factor. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) were included in the investigation to analyze chemical and structural transformations in the capacitors failed in the accelerated tests. Results show strong impact of technology on reliability and failure mode including the lowest failure rate and no wear-out failure mode in Polymer Tantalum capacitors manufactured with F-Tech.
No ignition and burning tantalum were found in the Solid Electrolytic Tantalum capacitors that failed short. The flame retardant properties of the epoxy compound used for encapsulating of the surface mount Tantalum capacitors are also under discussion.
(1) L.Diblik; D.Latif; Eggo Space, Czech Republic
(2) D.Lacombe, J.Jimenez, L.Farhat; ESA ESTEC, The Netherlands
Cracks in MLCC ceramic capacitor are, unfortunately, a well know phenomena that can depend to several factors. It is believed to reduce the reliability of the capacitor leading to catastrophic failure like short circuit.
When cracked capacitors are found in space projects the usual practice is to replace the defective parts and/or to solve the root cause of the problem as for example by modifying the assembly parameters to reduce the thermo-mechanical stress during assembly of the capacitor. However, in many cases, it is not possible to solve the issue and projects have to take risks by flying with potential defectives capacitors.
This paper elaborates on problematic of MLCC capacitors cracks – literature survey and practical experiments to develop methodology to induce electrode-to-electrode cracks without deterioration of the capacitor’s immediate electrical parameters. In the next step subject these capacitors to thermal vacuum and high temperature life test to evaluate its impact to space flight operating conditions.
12:40-14:10 Session II. (cont.) QUALITY & RELIABILITY Chairman: Luca Primavesi
Alex Eidelman, Stanislav Zlatopolsky; Vishay
Using polymer tantalum capacitors in Hi-Rel systems requires assessments of reliability characteristics of the parts. For this assessment, tantalum capacitors are typically subjected to reliability testing at temperatures and voltages exceeding the specified values, and reliability characteristics are calculated based on voltage and temperature acceleration factors.
In this work, various types and lots of polymer tantalum capacitors have been tested at highly accelerated life test (HALT) conditions and the acceleration factors have been determined using different techniques. It has been shown that behavior of capacitors under HALT can be described based on the time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) model that explains variations of the proportion of infant mortality failures with applied voltage.
The difference in failure modes between application and life test conditions as well as the reason for anti-wear-out failures are discussed. Analysis shows that with proper derating, screening and qualification testing the reliability of the leadframeless Hi-Rel COTS polymer tantalum capacitors is adequate for space missions.
Since almost a decade, supercapacitors (SC) were identified as promising high-power sources as they can bridge the gap between capacitors and batteries. SC have been found to be potentially attractive for several space power applications. ESA has conducted several activities for developing supercapacitors for space applications.
In this presentation, an overview of identified space applications for SC will be provided, the conclusions of recent development activities funded and led by ESA will be shared. Finally, the challenges of providing a high reliable space solution will be listed as well.
The purpose of the work is to propose a method to predict the reliability of a capacitor by leakage currents already at the stage of a anode. The stress-strain curve gives information about structural affecting its parameters: yield strength, Young’s modulus, defects, which is also true for porous materials.
It is shown that the change C ~ S /l, [where S is the area, and l is the thickness of the dielectric], is directly proportional to the change in Young’s modulus of the porous material E = E0 (1-p/pc), [where E is the modulus of porous material, with porosity p, E0 – modulus of solid material, pc ~ 1] The change in porosity is achieved by varying the press density pellet, temperature / time sintering. A change in porosity leads to a change in the size of the neck (X) in porous material.
The size of the neck affects the choice of recipe formation (upper limit formation voltage, formation current, etc.), and not a combination of these parameters, leads to the defects of the anode, and accordingly, grows its leakage currents. It is shown that the change in leakage currents is directly proportional to the change in yield strength Ау ~ (X / D) 2 where X is the neck size and D is the diameter of the primary powder particle. Correlation Ay ~ X, when provided, that n > 0.4. Parameter n characterizes the defectiveness of the material and is determined from the SS curve.
Showed, that the behavior E and Ay, determining from the SS curve and the electrical characteristics of the anode C and DCL are described (depend) by practically the same physical processes.
The reliability of the tantalum capacitor and above all, the leakage currents (DCL), is determined by the anode. The proposed method makes it possible to control the quality of the sinter pellet and anode in comparison with theirs the benchmark E and Ay (SS curve). The quality of the sintered pellet and anode depends on many parameters (powder, quality sinter pellet, defects and etc.), which currently, there is no control.
The proposed method of mechanical testing allows to separate and quantify the influence of capacitor anode design, and each of the manufacturing processes to finished capacitor performance at the earliest manufacturing/design steps.
Implementation of mechanical testing methods (recording stress-strain curve) is to drive down the cost of doing business and to increase operational efficiency. The developed approach is an essential tool to reach these goals.
14:10-14:50 Invited Paper II.
Reliability and simulation of film and aluminum electrolytic capacitors with the latest design tools CLARA and ALCAP; TDK; Germany
David Olalla & Fabio Mello; TDK Germany
- Life prediction and modelling of capacitors
- Model tools and what is behind it
- Film and Aluminium capacitors chapters
TDK Film capacitors CLARA (Capacitor Life and Rating Application) and Aluminum Electrolytic capacitors AlCap (Useful life calculation tool), implement a powerful parametric search based on capacitor parameters and a powerful simulation of given application conditions. CLARA Advance Search Application Based, execute automatic simulation of application conditions on the whole product portfolio to return those part numbers together with the positive simulation results. We will give some insight on how the simulation is working, hints about the models behind, and the necessary considerations when applied for a complex circuit or system design.
15:10-16:40 Session III. MEASUREMENT AND TEST Chairman: Lorandt Fölkel
The most cost effective and simplest way of converting a measured current to a voltage signal is to use a low ohmic value current sense resistor. The increase in products containing batteries, motors or actuators which call for current monitoring or control has led to huge growth in the market for current sense chip resistors with values below one ohm over the last two decades. But more recently, driven by power efficiency demands and enabled by low noise sense voltage amplifiers, the value range has been extended downwards from milliohms to hundreds of micro-ohms. Such low ohmic values present challenges to the user at many stages in their design and manufacturing processes.
This paper considers the nature of these challenges and suggests strategies to overcome them. The stages considered are component selection, PCB layout design, verification of the ohmic value of unmounted components, solder paste print and reflow, and expected ohmic values during product life. At each stage there are potential pitfalls but also opportunities to quantify and minimise error and variation. Although sub-milliohm chip resistors are still just chip resistors, it is advisable to treat them as being a separate class of component, and to discover the particular considerations and techniques that enable their successful use.
Surface mount technology feedthrough ceramic capacitors are gaining popularity in Hi-Rel systems due to small size and great filtering characteristics. In this work, commercial BME feedthrough capacitors have been evaluated, screened, and qualified for a space project. Evaluation included analysis of the effect of post-soldering thermal shocks, temperature dependencies of leakage currents, distribution of breakdown voltages, assessments of high-current capability, and thermal resistance of the parts. The parts have been screened and qualified at conditions close to the military requirements for ceramic capacitors.
Two failures were detected during monitored 2000-hour life testing at 125C and two times rated voltage. Failure analysis revealed manufacturing defects that required additional analysis of screening and qualification test conditions. Highly accelerated life testing (HALT) has been carried out to assess reliability acceleration factors and the probability of failure at use conditions. An approach to selection of adequate burning-in and life test conditions is discussed.
History: First experience with „DC-Bias Aging“ on MLCCs at Continental Automotive
- How do we manage this behaviour in our company?
- How do our suppliers manage this behaviour?
- Get comparable data
- Differences between manufacturers.
16:45 Gala Dinner (bus coach to country restaurant)
FRI 10th Sep 2021
8:00 Registration Desk Opens
9:00-11:00 Session IV. APPLICATIONS Chairman: Pietro Andreetti / Léo Farhat
4.1. New DC-Link Power Box And Resonant Film Capacitors For High Temperature In Industrial And Automotive Applications; Evangelista Boni; KEMET Electronics; Italy
Walter Bruno; Fabio Bregoli; Marco Michelazzi; Sara Santi; Federico Fantini; KEMET Electronics Italy
Harvey Xu; Tianda Shi; Wayne Zhou; Andrew Qin; Kemet Electronics China
Downsizing and footprint reduction are constant requirements of the market for all applications or equipment and the relative components. Film capacitors are not an exception and time by time is required to reduce the components dimension maintaining the same rated voltage and performances. Decreasing the volume of the components, one of the consequences is a reduction of the power dissipation by its surfaces and therefore a final increasing of its working temperature.
Beside the downsizing, the spread of electronic devices in automotive market and the ramp up usage of the new WBG (Wide Band Gap) technologies has definitely increased the working temperature requirement for most of the electronic components. KEMET has taken the commitment of the market to release new innovative series able to work: at higher temperature with an higher reliability at maximum operating temperature with increase of Irms/Vrms values
4.2. Haptics, it used to be all about resonant frequency; Marina Innocenti; KEMET Electronics; Italy
Current haptic technologies are not meeting OEM goals. The sense of touch is a critical element into an immersive user experience.
Haptic sensations must be localized and in high definition to meet user expectations KEMET Electro-Mechanical Polymer-based actuators are thin, light, flexible, and provide a wide range of haptic feedback that are mild, pleasing and distinguishable from one another thereby providing a wide range of feedback.
Novasentis has over a decade of experience with the technology that is protected by an impressive array of patents. Multiple actuators can be activated independently to create rich and customizable notification effects.
Slavomir Pala; AVX Corporation, Czech Republic
GaN based RF devices offer significant advantages in a wide spectrum of applications ranging from commercial to military equipment. This paper looks at the ability of Tantalum Polymer capacitors to be used on the bias of GaN based Power Amplifiers. The fundamentals of Tantalum Polymers are presented along with recent products intended for flight systems.
We can compare to Tantalum Polymers to Aluminum Electrolytics & MLCCs in both electrical and environmental performance. An example of a high power HEMT will be shown along side with performance features of each technology.
4.4. Energy Storage Capacitor Technology Comparison and Selection; Daniel West & Ussama Margieh; AVX Corporation; USA
Ussama Margieh; AVX GmbH; Germany
Tantalum, MLCC, and super capacitor technologies are ideal for many energy storage applications because of their high capacitance capability. These capacitors have drastically different electrical and environmental responses that are sometimes not explicit on datasheets or requires additional knowledge of the properties of materials used to select the best solution for a given design.
This paper compares the performance of these technologies over energy density, frequency response, ESR, leakage, size, reliability, efficiency, and ease of implementation for energy harvesting/scavenging/hold-up applications. A brief material properties benefits and considerations of X5R, Tantalum, Tantalum polymer, and electrochemical double-layer capacitors is provided.
An example of an energy storage circuit problem is provided that has a capacitance and voltage requirement that is not achieved with a single, maximum CV capacitor for any of the relevant technologies.
Capacitor banks are built with each technology that are viable solutions. Design considerations are discussed for optimization of each capacitor bank, and analyzed. Results of the analysis will show where each technology excels.
This presentation should be of interest to component engineers, program managers, power electronics engineers working on energy harvesting, scavenging, and hold-up applications, due to its impact on system design and performance.
11:20-13:20 Session V. NEW DEVELOPMENT Chairman: Thomas Ebel / Tomáš Zedníček
Walter Bruno; KEMET Electronics Corporation
Electronic component miniaturization and operation in harsh environmental conditions are growing trends in applications, such as on-board chargers, energy meters, capacitive power supplies, including connection in series with the mains, motor drives, wind and solar inverters.
Current EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) X2 class suppression and DC-link power box film capacitors need capability improvement to meet these requirements. Very high capacitance and dissipation factor stability are required during operational life in severe ambient conditions such as high temperature and relative humidity, while still meeting European and other Electrical Norms (ENEC and CQC), the criteria in the standard for automotive application (AEC-Q200) and the international safety requirement (UL).
The moisture absorbed into the capacitor leads to corrosion of the electrode and accelerated degradation of the capacitor by increasing of capacitance loss. Temperature-Humidity-Bias (THB) is a standard test for accelerated stress testing of corrosion and other moisture-driven mechanisms for degradation. In this paper, we have studied the characteristics and performance under high temperature and humidity conditions of new capacitor designs in a miniaturized version of first to the market metallized EMI X2 class suppression and DC-link power box film capacitors. Three advanced KEMET series of metallized film capacitors have been stressed under an applied rated AC or DC voltage at 85°C and 85 %R.H. and the drop of capacitance and change of the dissipation factor have been monitored with the time for 500 and 1000 hours.
(1) Aslihan Kartci, Silvester Vančík, Radim Hrdý, Jan Prášek;Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
(2) Schneider; Vienna University of Technology, Microsystems Technology, TU Wien, Austria
(3) Ulrich Schmid; Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, TU Wien, Austria
The technological use of high- dielectric materials is aimed towards the electrical materials field of on-chip capacitors high efficiency energy storage devices. For instance, the thickness of the layers has significant influence on the dielectric properties, capacitance density, leakage current density–voltage (J–V), and capacitance density–voltage (C–V) characteristics.
Among metal oxide compounds, HfO2 and Al2O3 have been widely studied due to their good thermodynamic stability in contact with silicon. The devices have been fabricated by ALD processes on Si wafer. Properties of n-stacks HfO2/Al2O3-based dielectrics as on-chip capacitors were studied.
The nanolaminates of alternating HfO2 and Al2O3 layers were fabricated with 1, 3, and 5 stacks (2, 6 and 10 layers) while keeping constant the total thickness of 11 nm. The capacitance density, C-V and impedance characteristics, and leakage current were measured. The observed mechanism is likely due to different thickness or stack number of HfO2/Al2O3 nanolaminates that efficiently enhance the dielectric properties of the layered structure. The experimental results indicate that significant improvements on-chip capacitor can be obtained using nanolaminate dielectrics.
The equivalent dielectric constant, capacitance density are increasing and leakage current is decreasing as the number of stacks (HfO2/Al2O3) increase when the total thickness is simultaneously kept constant (11 nm). The experimental results indicate that significant improvements of on-chip capacitor can be obtained using interleaved nanolaminate dielectrics.
This paper will present a novel technology (CNF-MIM) combining Carbon Nanostructures materials and MIM-like technology, enabling capacitors with total thickness lower than 40 µm – suitable for use in future miniaturized electronics. The CNF-MIM ultra-thin and discrete capacitors have been manufactured and characterized on several substrates, showing excellent electrical properties such as high capacitance density of several hundreds of nF/mm2, ESR in the mOhm range, low ESL (~ 10 pH) and promising for a multitude of applications within the semiconductor industry.
To assess the long-term durability, CNF-MIM capacitors have also been subjected to prolonged exposure to high temperature and constant voltage bias environments following a HTS and BTS standard. The CNF-MIM capacitor show initial robustness against degradation in these scenarios.
Vladimir Bordo, Steffen Buhrkal-Donau; Centre for Industrial Electronics, SDU, Sønderborg, Denmark
High voltage Aluminium electrolytic capacitors with working voltages UR > 400 V are the backbone of industrial and automotive electronics. The main application is in the DC-link circuit. The Advantage of those Capacitors are lower cost compared to other capacitor types, a high CV product and a better coolabilty.
Polymer Aluminum Electrolytic capacitors have ca. 10 times lower ESR values as classical Aluminium electrolytic capacitors with liquid electrolyte and are much more temperature stable. So far they are only available for rated voltages lower than 250 V. It would be therefore favorable to have Polymer Aluminium Electrolytic Capacitors also operating at further higher voltages.
To step forward a new developed breakdown model of classical Aluminium Electrolytic Capacitors will be discussed and first preliminary data of high voltage Polymer Aluminium Electrolytic Capacitors data with rated voltage over 400 V will be presented.
13:30 Closing & Best Paper Award Ceremony
lunch with lunch to go option